Risk Predictors & Economics

The Risk Predictors & Economics team is a collaboration between the McCormick School of Engineering, the Kellogg School of Management and the Division of Organ Transplantation and other interested parties that focuses on research of risk assessment to determine effective predictors of outcomes in organ donation and transplantation.

Areas of interest include:

  • Patient outcomes in organ donation and transplantation
  • Healthcare costs and reimbursement issues resulting from donation and transplantation from the payer, patient, and societal perspectives
  • Improving donor and recipient decision-making
  • Cost-effective long-term health outcomes


Anton Skaro, MD, PhD
  • Assistant Professor
    Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation
  • Director-Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement
  • Director-Vascular Access Surgery Program
  • Associate Director-Kidney Transplantation
  • Chair-Risk Predictors & Economics
Gordon Hazen, PhD
  • Professor
    Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science
  • Chair
    Risk Predictors & Economics


Donald Lloyd-Jones, MD/ScM
Lisa VanWagner MD
Lihui Zhao, PhD
Sateyender Goel PhD
Abel Kho, MD
Joseph Feinglass, PhD




  • Van Wagner LB, Serper M, Kang R, Levitsky J, Hohmann S, Abecassis M, Skaro A, Lloyd-Jones DM. Factors associated with major adverse cardiovascular events after liver transplantation among a national sample. Am J Transplant. 2016 Mar 6.
  • Gallagher TK, Skaro AI, Abecassis MM. Emerging Ethical Considerations of Donation After Circulatory Death: Getting to the Heart of the Matter. Ann Surg. 2016 Feb;263(2):217-8.
  • VanWagner LB, Skaro AI. Should age matter? A new proposal for liver transplantation allocation. Liver Transpl. 2015 Oct;21(10):1235-7.
  • Skaro AI, Hazen G, Ladner D, Kaplan B. Organ Transplantation: An Introduction to Game Theory. Transplantation. 2015 Jul;99(7):1316-20.
  • Gupta A, Ho B, Ladner DP, Kang J, Skaro A, Kaplan B. Program-specific Reports: A Guide to the Debate. Transplantation. 2015 Jun;99(6):1109-12
  • VanWagner LB, Lapin B, Skaro AI, Lloyd-Jones DM, Rinella ME. Impact of renal impairment on cardiovascular disease mortality after liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2015 Dec;35(12):2575-83.
  • Skaro AI, Gallon LG, Lyuksemburg V, Jay CL, Zhao L, Ladner DP, VanWagner LB, De Wolf AM, Flaherty JD, Levitsky J, Abecassis MM, Gheorghiade M. The impact of coronary artery disease on outcomes after liver transplantation. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2014 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print]
  • VanWagner LB, Lapin B, Levitsky J, Wilkins JT, Abecassis MM, Skaro AI, Lloyd-Jones DM. High early cardiovascular mortality after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2014 Nov;20(11):1306-16
  • Skaro AI, Zhao L, Vanwagner LB, Abecassis MMAccess to retransplantation after failed donation after circulatory death liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation: Official Journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2014;14(5):991-3.
  • Chang Y, Gallon L, Jay C, Shetty K, Ho B, Levitsky J, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Liver Transplant Strategies for End-Stage Liver Disease Patients on Renal Replacement Therapy. Liver Transpl. 2014.


  • Atiemo K,  Zhao L, Skaro A, VanWagner L, Goel S, Kho A, Ho B, Kang R, Montag S, Holl J, Abecassis MM, Ladner DP. Factors Associated with Mortality Among a Large Population of Patients with Cirrhosis and a Low MELD (<15). American Transplant Congress; 2016; Boston.
  • Ladner D, Skibba K, Kang J, Ho B, Kho A, Kulik L, Daud, Salehtezangi N, Abecassis M. MELD Velocity – An Early Predictor of Increased Mortality Risk. American Transplant Congress; 2015; Chicago, IL.
  • VanWagner L, Lapin B, Lloyd- Jones D, Skaro A, Rinella ME. Early Cardiovascular Disease Mortality After Liver Transplantation–Is Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) to Blame? EASL- The International Liver Congress 2014; 2014; London, UK.
  • Goodmanson M, Nilles K, Ho B, Ison M, Levitsky J.  Colonoscopic evaluation of diarrhea and colitis in abdominal solid organ transplant recipients. CTC Summer Student Immersion Program Poster Session; 2013; Chicago, IL.
  • Baker T, Levitsky J, Al-Saden P, Solomon D, Ballard K, Jie C, et al.. Plasma Osteopontin Levels Correlate with Reversible Kidney Injury in Liver Transplant Candidates. American Transplant Congress; 2013; Seattle, WA.
  • Jay CL, Lyuksemburg V, Ladner DP, Wang E, Holl J, Hazen G, et al. The Comparative Effectiveness of Donation after Cardiac Death versus Donation after Brain Death Liver Transplantation: Recognizing Who Can Benefit. American Association for the Study of Liver Disease Annual Meeting; 2011 San Francisco, CA. .
  • Wang E, Lyuksemburg V, Abecassis MM, Skaro AI, et al.. Donor and Recipient Risk Aversion in Liver Transplantation. American Association for the Study of Liver Disease Annual Meeting; 2011; San Francisco, CA.
  • Sundaram SS, Alonso E, Zeitler P, Yin W, Anand R, Group SR, Obesity after Pediatric Liver Transplant: Prevalence and Risk Factors. American Transplant Congress; 2011; Philadelphia, PA.
  • Skaro A, Wang E, Lyuksemburg V, Ladner D, Jay C, Chang Y, et al. Risk Aversion in Liver Transplantation – The Dark Side of Quality Improvement and Regulatory Oversight.Association for Academic Surgery/Society of University Surgeons American Surgical Congress; 2011; Huntington Beach, CA.